Chapter 1: Review Question

1.1

What do you think are the major issues facing the software industry today?

Answer:

Many software products are either not finished or not used or not delivered for some major errors. Today some of the quality issues that must be considered for software industry are:

  • Correctness.
  • Maintainability.
  • Reusability.
  • Openness and interoperability.
  • Portability.
  • Openness and interoperability.
  • Portability.
  • Security.
  • Integrity.
  • User friendliness.
1.2

Briefly discuss the software evolution during the period 1950— 1990.

Answer

In 1950, the first three modern programming languages whose descendants are still in widespread today.

  • FORTRAN (1955), the “FORmula TRANslator”
  • LISP (1958) the “LISt Procssor”.
  • COBOL, the COmmon Business Oriented Language.

Some important language that were developed in 1950 to 1960 are:

  • 1951 Regional Assembly Language.
  • 1952 Autocode.
  • 1954 IPL.
  • 1955 FLOW-MATIC.
  • 1957 COMTRAN.
  • 1959 COBOL.
  • 1962 APL.
1.3

What is procedure-oriented programming? What are its main characteristics?

Answer

Conventional programming, using high level language such as COBOL, FORTAN and C is commonly known as procedure oriented programming.
Characteristics :

  • Emphasis is on doing things (algorithms)
  • Large programs are divided into small programs known as function.
  • Most of the function share global data.
  • Data move openly around the system from function to function.
  • Function transform data from one form to another.
1.4

Discuss an approach to the development of procedure-oriented programs.

Answer

In the procedure-oriented approach, the problem is viewed as a sequence of things to be done such as

  • Reading
  • Calculating
  • Printing.

A number of functions are written to accomplish these tasks.

1.5

Describe how data are shared by functions in a procedure-oriented program.

Answer

In a multi-function program, many important data items are placed as global so that they may be accessed by all the functions. Each function may have its own local data.

1.6

What is object-oriented programming? How is it different from the procedure-oriented programming?

Answer

Object oriented programming (OOP)is an approach that provides a way of modularizing programs by creating partitioned memory area for both data and functions that can be used as templates for creation copies of such modules on demand.  Different between OOP(Object oriented programming) & POP(Procedure oriented programming):

  • OOP has data hading feature for which the data of a class cannot be accessed by the member function of other class but POP has no such feature.
  • In OOP we can design our own data-type which is same as built in data type. But in POP we can not do this.
1.7

How are data and functions organized in an object-oriented program?

Answer

Data and functions are belongs to a class. Data is called data member and functions are called member functions. There is a visibility-mode such as public and private. Generally data is private and functions are public

1.8

What are the unique advantages of an object-oriented programming paradigm?

Answer

The unique advantage of object-oriented program paradigm is to have a working definition of OOP before we proceed further.

1.9

Distinguish between the following terms:
(a) Objects and classes
(b) Data abstraction and data encapsulation
(c) Inheritance and polymorphism
(d) Dynamic binding and message passing

Answer

(a) Objects are the basic run-time entities which contain data and code to manipulate data where the entire set of data and code of an object can be made as a user-defined data type with the help of a class. In short, objects are numbers of classes.

(b) Describing the functionality of a class independent of its implementation is called data abstraction. Where data encapsulation means the wrapping up of data and functions into a single unit.

(c) The mechanism of deriving a new class from an old one is called inheritance, where polymorphism means one thing with several distinct terms.

(d) Binding refers to the linking of a procedure call to be executed in response to the call. When binding occurs at run-time, then it is known as dynamic-binding.

Massage passing involves specifying the name of the object, the name of the function and the information to be sent

1.10

What kinds of things can become objects in 00P?

Answer

Objects are the basic run-time entities in an object-oriented system. They may represent a person, a place, a bank account, a table of data or any item that the program has to handle.

1.11

Describe inheritance as applied to OOP.

Answer

Inheritance is one of the most powerful feature of object-oriented programming. Inheritance is the process of creating new class from existing class. The new class is called derived class and existing class is called base class.

1.12

What do you mean by dynamic binding? How is it useful in OOP?

Answer

Binding refers to the linking of a procedure call to be executed in response to the call. When binding occurs at run time it is known as dynamic binding. Dynamic binding is useful in OOP such as a function call associated with a polymorphic reference depends on the dynamic type of that reference.

1.13

Now does object-oriented approach differ from object-based approach?

Answer

Object-based programming do not support inheritance and dynamic binding but object-oriented programming do so.

1.14

List a few areas of application of 001″ technology.

Answer

Areas of application of OOP technology are :
1. Real-time system.
2. Simulation and modeling.
3. Object oriented database.
4. Hypertext, hypermedia .
5. Decision support and office automation system.

1.15

State whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE.
(a) In procedure-oriented programming, all data are shared by all functions.
(b) The main emphasis of procedure-oriented programming is on algorithms rather than on data.
(c) One of the striking features of object-oriented programming is the division of programs into objects that represent real-world entities.
(d) Wrapping up of data of different types into a single unit is known as encapsulation.
(e) One problem with 00P is that once a class is created it can never be changed.
(f) Inheritance means the ability to reuse the data values of one object by
(g) Polymorphism is extensively used in implementing inheritance.
(h) Object oriented programs are executed much faster than conventional programs.
(i) Object-oriented systems can scale up better from small to large.
(j) Object-oriented approach cannot be used to create databases.

Answer
  • a> FALSE
  • b> TRUE
  • c> TRUE
  • d> FALSE
  • e> FALSE
  • f> TRUE
  • g> TRUE
  • h> FALSE
  • i> TRUE
  • j> FALSE

 


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